Week 10

Google Analytics


(a) Create a segment for “visitors from the Town/City called Belfast who also use the Internet Explorer browser”.

The screen shot below shows the first segment I created relating to “website visitors located in Belfast who accessed the site using the Internet Explorer Browser”. The name given to this segment was “Dooey-G: Belfast Internet Explorer Users”.

Once the segment was designed it was tested which can be seen in the screen shot below. According to Google Analytics, 122 visits to the TRAIL website originated from Belfast and 428 visits involved the use of Internet Explorer between 15 June 2010 and 15 November 2010. However, only 58 visits to the site both originated in Belfast and involved the use of Internet Explorer.

The graph below represents the total number of visits to the site compared to the total number of visits from Belfast using Internet Explorer between the 15 June 2010 and 15 November 2010. The graph clearly shows that the number of visits from Belfast using Internet Explorer only accounts for a small percentage of the overall visits.

(b) The second segment that you design is left to yourself. You can pick any variable combination, but you have to provide some explanation justifying your choice.

Mobile technologies have made significant advancements over the past decade. It has become increasingly common for people to access the internet through mobile devices such as; personal digital assistants (PDAs) and iPhones (Tanenbaum.A, 2003). There is a rising demand for organisations especially e-businesses to make their websites compatible with mobile devices. This is why I chose to relate my second segment to “visitors who have returned to the TRAIL website using a mobile device”. The name given to this segment was “Dooey-G: Returning mobile users”.

Once the segment was designed it was tested which can be seen in the screen shot below. According to Google Analytics, there were 174 returning visits and 11 mobile visits to the site between 15 June 2010 and 15 November 2010. Out of a total of 11 mobile visits there was only one mobile device used more than once to access the site.

The graph below shows the total number of visits to the website. It also compares the total number of returning visits and the total number of returning mobile visits between the 15 June 2010 and 15 November 2010. There was only one returning mobile visit out of 174 returning visits. As mobile devices become increasingly popular, it would be worthwhile to make the website more compatible with mobile devices.



Tanenbaum, A (2003). Computer Networks. 4th ed. New Jersey 07458: Pearson Education LTD. p9 -10.


Google Analytics: TRAIL Living Lab. Available: http://www.google.com/analytics/. Last accessed 28/11/10.


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Week 9

Google Analytics


a) How many visitors to the site in the last 5 months (assume 15 June 2010 – 15 November 2010)?

Answer: According to Google Analytics, there were a total of 929 visits to the website. However, there were only 778 unique visitors who accessed the website between the 15 June 2010 and 15 November 2010.

b) Answer all three questions. What is meant by bounce rate? What is the bounce rate for the TRAIL site in the last 5 months? Should the website try to lower or raise the bounce rate?

Answer: The bounce rate is the measurement of visitors entering the website who exit straightaway, after only viewing one page (Dave Chaffey, 2007). TRAIL’s website has recorded a high bounce rate of 67.81% over the last five months. Many of the website’s visitors enter the website to read the most current articles, once finished they leave the site.  This can result in a high bounce rate. TRAIL shouldn’t be too concerned about the bounce rate since the websites only purpose is to present information (John Arnold, Ian Lurie, Marty Dickinson, Elizabeth Marsten & Michael Becker, 2009).

E-businesses should be concerned with their websites bounce rates. Having a high bounce rate could be the result of a wrongly selected key phrase or a poorly designed website. E-businesses using search-engine’s advertisements need to carefully select the right keyword. If a wrong key word is selected, it could attract a lot of visitors who are not interested in the website. However, the company still have to pay each time the advertisement is clicked on leading to a loss of revenue. If the company’s website is poorly designed many potential customers will simply exit it (Martin Harwood, Michael Harwood & Mike Harwood, 2009).

c) In the last 5 months, where are most visitors coming from: Direct Traffic, Referring Sites or Search Engines?

Answer: According to Google Analytics, most visitors 55.76% to be precise used search-engines to access the website over the past five months.

d) What was the most popular key word (or phrase) that visitors typed that brought them to the TRAIL web site in the last 5 months?

Answer: In the last five months “Trail Living Lab” was the most popular key phrase used to search for the site according to Google Analytics.

e) A referring site is a site that brings visitors to the web site. In the last 5 months, which site (that is not a university of ulster web site) is the largest referrer?

Answer: According to Google Analytics, brain-project.org is the largest referrer to TRAIL’s website. There were thirty-one visits to TRAIL’s website through brain-project.org.

f) What is the sixth most popular country of origin of visitors for the site in the last 5 months?

 Answer: Over the last five months Belgium was the sixth most popular country used to access the TRAIL’s website. There were seventeen visits to the site from Belgium according to Google Analytics.

g) How many mobile visits were there to the site in the last 5 months?

Answer: There were eleven mobile visits to the website in the last five months according to Google Analytics. “iPhone” was the most popular mobile device used to access the website.

h) Examine the Visitor loyalty graph above. Interpret the graph and explain what it is showing.

Answer: A visitor loyalty graph shows the number and percentage of people who have visited a website once or more times (Howie Jacobson, 2009). The graph above shows that the majority of people 81.16% only have visited TRAIL’s website once. 6.24% of people visited the website between 51 and 100 times.



Chaffey, D (2007). E-Business and E-Commerce Management. Third edition. Essex CM20 2JE: Pearson Education Limited. p632.

Hardwood, M & Hardwood, M & Harwood, M (2009). Landing Page Optimization For Dummies. Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774: John Wiley & Sons. p164-166.

Arnold, J & Lurie, I & Dickinson, M & Marsten, E & Becker, M (2009). Web Marketing All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies. Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774: John Wiley & Sons. p311-312.

Jacobson, H (2009). Google AdWords for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774: John Wiley & Sons. p364.


Google Analytics: TRAIL Living Lab. Available: http://www.google.com/analytics/. Last accessed 19/11/10.





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Week 8

Randox Health Checks is a private sector business that offers members of the public health checks; for a fee of £50. The main aim of this service is to help clients to identify medical problems they have or could have in the future. The client can use this information to seek treatment or advice from their doctor (randoxhealthchecks.com).

Randox Health Checks has a website that provides information about the services it offers as well as the business’s contact details. The website presents the opportunity for the company to raise public awareness of its business. The company also currently use the social media site Facebook to promote its business. People visiting Randox’s Facebook page can view past client reviews, videos of Radox’s technologies in additional to information about their services. People can also post questions relating to the services offered on the Facebook page which the company will respond to. Providing information both on the website and Facebook page can help the company attract clients. However, currently clients can only book health check appointments via phone or email. The business could implement an automated system that would allow clients to book appointments directly through the website. I believe this method would benefit the business and increase customer satisfaction.

The main problem that the business faces is that it only has one health check centre based in Belfast. The business could have difficulties attracting customers outside of this area. However, the business has tried to overcome this predicament by offering to carry out home health checks. Another difficulty the company faces is the fact that people can get health checks from the National Health Service (NHS) free of charge. The main drawback with the NHS is the fact that patients have to wait long periods of time before being checked out. Randox has the advantage of being able to offer clients health checks in a shorter period of time.

In my opinion I believe the business is viable. There are many people worried about their health willing to pay for private health checks, to avoid the NHS’s long waiting times. This allows people to take action quicker to prevent or treat any health problems.



randoxhealthchecks.com. (2010). About Randox Health Checks.Available: http://www.randoxhealthchecks.com/. Last accessed 13/11/2010. 

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Week 7

Search Engine Optimisation

Search-engines are one of the main methods used to access websites. It is essential for an e-business’s website to be ranked highly in search-engine’s listings, otherwise visitor numbers could be reduced resulting in the loss of potential sales (Dave Chaffey, 2007). When “marks and spencer” is searched in a search-engine, the official Marks and Spencer’s (M&S’s) website usually appears top of the natural search results.

Search-engine optimization is the method used to gain a higher position in a search-engine’s natural result listings. The following are techniques that may improve a webpage’s ranking (Dave Chaffey, 2007):

Key Phrase Density: This involves placing a key phrase frequently throughout a webpage, to enhance its search-engine ranking. However, some search-engines penalize websites that overuse key phrases (Dave Chaffey, 2007).

Inbound Links: The greater number of inbound links to a web page can increase its search-engine ranking. Links from high ranking web pages increase a web pages ranking better than links from low ranking web pages (Dave Chaffey, 2007).

Title Tag: Including a key phrase in a website’s title can help boost its search-engine’s ranking. A title should be descriptive helping to attract more visitors leading to better webpage rankings (Dave Chaffey, 2007).

Meta-Tags: Some search-engines use meta-tags to assist the indexing of web pages. A “Keyword” meta-tag contains key phrases relating to the website. A “description” meta-tag provides a description of what the website offers which appears on the search-engine’s result page. Therefore, it is important to provide a good description to attract visitors (Dave Chaffey, 2007).

There are many key phrases that people use to search for the M&S website such as “M&S” and “m n s”. However, the official M&S’s website doesn’t always appear top of the natural search results for some key phrases. M&S uses paid listings on result pages for common key phrases that their customers might search for. Rival businesses have also paid to have their websites, products and services advertised beside M&S’s listings. This strategy is being used to attract competitor’s customers. However, research recently carried out by Tamar found that “Four out of five online 18 to 24-year-olds prefer and trust natural search results over paid” (2010).



Chaffey, D. (2007):E-Business and E-Commerce Management, Third Edition, Pearson Education Limited, Pg 411, 412, 413

White Papers

Tamar.com: The Search and Social Agency (2010): 2010 Search Attitudes. cited in, http://www.tamar.com/thinking/white-papers/whitepapersform?id=2190, accessed on  6/11/10

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Week 6

Customer Relationship Management

Q.11 The three applications of e-CRM are operational, analytical and collaborative. Review your chosen website and identify online tools and techniques in support of each of these three functions. If there are gaps in the online provision, make appropriate recommendations for improvement.

Online tools and techniques

Recommendation for improvement

  • To deal with customer inquiries the Marks and Spencer’s (M&S) website provides categorised lists of frequently asked questions (FAQs). Users are able to search for answers to specific questions (marksandspencer.com).
  • Customer satisfaction is increased because they can get quick answers to inquiries rather than having to frustratingly wait for responses to emails or phone calls (Kenneth Laudon & Jane Laudon, 2007).
  • This is the most cost-effective method for the company since they have less phone calls and emails to respond to (Kenneth Laudon & Jane Laudon, 2007)
  • A live chat tool could be added to the website. To deal with inquires not addressed in the FAQs.
  • This is a more costly method for the business.
  • However, it could help to increase sales and customer satisfaction.
  • M&S gathers consumer information through their website.
  • The data gathered is analysed to identify buying patterns (marksandspencer.com).
  • This data can be used personalise the website and marketing messages to offer relevant products to customers (Kenneth Laudon & Jane Laudon, 2007).
  • This leads to increases in sales and customer satisfaction.
  • M&S allows customers to design and customise their own shirts leading to increased customer satisfaction.
  • Currently the M&S website doesn’t offer a reward scheme.
  • If implemented this could help to retain current customers as well as attract new customers.

Q.12 Customer retention and increasing the lifetime value of customers is core to e-CRM. What online techniques encouraging long-term customer relationships are evident in your chosen website and to what extent do you think they are effective?

Marks and Spencer’s (M&S) gather information on customers when they browse and login to their website (marksandspencer.com). This data is analysed to identify valuable customers, customer’s interests, opportunity for cross selling and buying patterns (Kenneth Laudon & Jane Laudon, 2007). Cross selling is the promotion of additional products relevant to particular customers (Kenneth Laudon & Jane Laudon, 2007). M&S uses email and text messages to send marketing information (marksandspencer.com). The company can use customer information to personalise website’s content and marketing messages to the interests of the individual consumer. This helps the company to increase sales and customer’s satisfaction. M&S also offers special promotions to customers that sign up to their newsletters relating to certain products e.g. wines (marksandspencer.com). Setting up a reward scheme would be advantageous to the business because it could help to retain and increase the lifetime value of customers. It can also help to attract new customers leading to increases in sales.



marksandspencer.com: How do I contact you? Cited in, http://help.marksandspencer.com/faqs/company-website/contact-you, accessed on 30/10/10

marksandspencer.com: What is the website’s privacy policy? Cited in, http://help.marksandspencer.com/faqs/company-website/privacy-policy#4, accessed on 31/10/10


Laudon, K & Laudon, J (2007): Management Information Systems, Managing the Digital Firm, Eleventh Edition, Pearson Education Limited, Pg 381, 382, 383, 387

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Week 5

E-Business Strategy

Michael Porter’s five forces model describes the main competitive forces that can have an impact on businesses (Dave Chaffey, 2007).

The Threat of Substitute Products and Services

This threat arises when a rival business offers an alternative product or service of a higher quality at a lower price (John Goymer, 2004). Market leaders need to closely observe alternative products and services to help prevent reductions in their market shares (Dave Chaffey, 2007). A business needs to have strategies to counterattack competition such as; updating products and services or lowering prices. For example, Marks and Spencer (M&S) is the biggest clothing retailer in the UK (marksandspencer.com). In order for M&S to remain top of this market they must ensure clothing is competitively priced and fashionable otherwise customers will take their business elsewhere.

The Threat of the Entry of New Competitors

Industry markets that are profitable are always going to attract new businesses. The internet has sufficiently reduced the barriers faced by new entrants. Market leaders must observe new competitors to prevent erosion in their market shares (Dave Chaffey, 2007). Leading firms may block competition by lowering prices to a value that new entrants can’t compete with. Additionally, large businesses may develop customer loyalty through marketing and rewarding valued customers. This makes it more expensive for new entrants to build a customer base (tutor2u.net). For example, owners of M&S credit cards are rewarded points every time they purchase an item with it. These points can be converted into vouchers that users can use in any M&S store.

The intensity of competitive rivalry

E-businesses have to compete against both national and international businesses. E-businesses can quickly adapt and change business models to try and gain a competitive edge over rivals (Dave Chaffey, 2007). E-businesses can also modify prices of goods in real time in accordance to the current market conditions (Dave Chaffey, 2007). Market leaders must observe existing competitors to prevent a reduction in their market shares (Dave Chaffey, 2007). As mentioned before, businesses need to have strategies to counterattack competition such as; updating products and services or lowering prices. Firms could also set up a reward scheme to promote customer loyalty. M&S faces competition from Debenhams, Next and New Look.

The Bargaining Power of Customers

The bargaining power of customers has been sufficiently increased through the use of the internet. Customers can use review and comparison websites e.g. moneysupermarket.com, to compare the quality and prices of products (Dave Chaffey, 2007). Market leaders must ensure their products are high in quality as well as competitively priced to remain on top. For example, M&S must ensure their clothes are fashionable and competitively priced.

The Bargaining Power of Supplier

Businesses can request that their supplier uses an electronic link e.g. electronic data interchange (EDI), to deal with orders. This reduces the bargaining power of the supplier. Since businesses can easily and cheaply move to a different supplier. However, some suppliers may insist on using their own order processing system to link the businesses. This increases the supplier bargaining power due to the fact that it would be expensive for the firm to change the order processing system. This method is known as creating a “soft lock-in” (Dave Chaffey, 2007).



marksandspencer.com: Annual Review. cited in, http://corporate.marksandspencer.com/documents/publications/2010/Annual_Review_2010, accessed on  23/10/10, Pg 2

tutor2u.net: Barriers to Entry. cited in, http://tutor2u.net/economics/content/topics/monopoly/barriers_to_entry.htm, accessed on  23/10/10


Chaffey, D. (2007): E-Business and E-Commerce Management, Third Edition, Pearson Education Limited, Pg 61, 219, 220, 221, 222, 368

Goymer, J. (2004): BTEC National E-Business, Heinemann Education Publishers, Pg 211

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Week 4


Marks and Spencer’s (M&S) website provides well structured information relating to the legal terms and conditions applied when purchasing goods via their website. All the terms and conditions listed on the website appear to be fair and reasonable. Under the Consumer Protection Regulation 2000 customers have the right to cancel orders within seven working days. M&S permit customers to return products in satisfactory condition within thirty-five days (marksandspencer.com, 2010). If any product is delivered in an inadequate condition, M&S promises to repair, replace or refund the item (marksandspencer.com, 2010). M&S’s terms and conditions are quite similar to the terms and conditions of competition such as; Next and Debenhams.

Social networking websites allows people to communicate, share information, videos and images. Social networking has grown in popularity over the past decade and now millions of people worldwide use websites such as; Facebook and Twitter. Now many businesses including M&S have realised that these social networking sites can be used to market products and target potential customers worldwide (Sweeny & Craig: 2010). Businesses can set up a profile on Facebook free of any charge. M&S currently has got both a Facebook and Twitter account. On Facebook it has 160,236 fans and 13,838 followers on Twitter (Facebook.com, Twitter.com). M&S updates both profiles regularly with descriptions of the latest offers and images of the newest products. M&S also holds competitions on each site in order to attract more potential customers.

M&S uses cookies to gather information about the pages and products the visitors has viewed(marksandspencer.com, 2010). Many people believe that cookies are used to evade their privacy. A common misconception is that cookies are malicious pieces of software that collect personal information from your computer (howstuffworks.com, 2010). A cookie is really just a harmless text file usually containing a user ID number which is stored on a user’s computer. The next time the user visits the website the cookie can be retrieved. The information associated with the cookie can be used to personalise the website to offer products and services more relevant to the individual user (marksandspencer.com, 2010).



marksanspencer.com (2010): Terms and Conditions. cited in http://help.marksandspencer.com/faqs/company-website/terms-and-conditions , accessed on 14/10/2010

marksanspencer.com (2010): Privacy Policy. cited in http://help.marksandspencer.com/faqs/company-website/privacy-policy#10 , accessed on 14/10/2010

Facebook.com (2010): Marks and Spencer. cited in http://www.facebook.com/MarksandSpencer, accessed on 14/10/2010

Twitter.com (2010): Marks and Spencer. cited in http://twitter.com/MARKSANDSPENCER, accessed on 14/10/2010

Twitter.com (2010): Marks and Spencer. cited in http://twitter.com/MARKSANDSPENCER, accessed on 14/10/2010

HowStuffWorks.com: Marshall.B.  “How Internet Cookies Work”  26 April 2000.  http://computer.howstuffworks.com/cookie.htm, accessed  14/10/2010


Sweeny.S & Craig.R. (2010): Social Media for Business: 101 Ways to Grow Your Business Without Wasting Your Time. Maximum Press. Pg. 15

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Week 3

E-Business Infrastructure

Marks and Spencer’s (M&S) sales gained a total earning of £9.3 billion in the 2009/10 financial year (marksandspencer.com, 2010). M&S Direct which includes the company’s e-commerce website contributed £413 million to sales (marksandspencer.com, 2010). Marksandspencer.com is currently ranked the 103rd most popular UK website according to Alexa traffic rankings (alexa.com, 2010). It is estimated that the website had 29,154 unique visitors during august 2010 (compete.com, 2010). M&S’s main competition comes from retailers such as Debenhams and New Look. The graph below compares the number of unique visits the three rival businesses have had so far in 2010:

 (Source: compete.com)

Visitor’s of marksandspencer.com can access the site by entering the website’s address in a browser or find it using a search engine. Products on marksandspencer.com are categorised into specific groups making it user-friendly. Alternatively, visitors can use the website’s search engine to find desired products. The website provides details, images as well as customer reviews on each of the products. This makes it easier for users to select quality products. Customers have to register with the website before purchasing items. Shoppers can store items in a virtual basket while shopping. Once checking out customers must provide payment details e.g. credit card details, in order to proceed with the transaction. Customers have the choice of collecting the product in a local store or for an extra fee have it delivered to their home using a delivery service e.g. Royal mail.

Mobile computers, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), have become more popular in recent years. These devices are capable of connecting to the World Wide Web wirelessly. This allows users to browse the internet, access remote files and check emails while on the move. It is also becoming increasingly common for mobile devices to be used to shop online (Tanenbaum, 2003). This opens new channels for e-businesses to market. E-businesses must ensure their website is compatible as well as user-friendly on mobile devices in order to attract customers.  




marksanspencer.com (2010): Full Year Results 2009/10. cited in http://corporate.marksandspencer.com/documents/results_presentations/2010/FinalResults2009_10_presentation.pdf , accessed on 7/10/2010

marksanspencer.com (2010): Annual Review and Summary Financial Statements 2010. cited in http://corporate.marksandspencer.com/documents/publications/2010/Annual_Review_2010 , Pg.2, accessed on 7/10/2010

alexa.com (2010): marksanspencer.com. cited in http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/marksandspencer.com#, accessed on 7/10/2010

compete.com (2010): marksanspencer.com. cited in http://siteanalytics.compete.com/marksandspencer.com/, accessed on 7/10/2010

compete.com (2010): Unique Visitors. cited in http://siteanalytics.compete.com/marksandspencer.com+debenhams.com+newlook.co.uk/#, accessed on 7/10/2010


Tanenbaum, A. (2003): Computer Networks. Pearson Education, Inc. New Jersey 07458. 4th Edition. Pg. 9, 10, 11, 12

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Week 2

E-Commerce Fundamentals

marksandspencer.com is the website that I have chosen to research and analysis. Marks and Spencer (M&S) is the top seller of woman’s clothing and lingerie in the UK. M&S also trades in a wide range of other products such as; homeware, food, flowers, technology in addition to clothing (marksandspencer.com, 2010). People visiting the website can view details and images relating to each product. Website visitors can also read past customer’s reviews to help them to choose quality products. When clients purchase items they have the choice of collecting it at a local store or having it delivered to their home. The website is well laid out providing a professional appearance and making it user-friendly. In a 2009 Webcredible survey the M&S website was ranked the UK’s top user-friendly retailer website.

Marks and Spencer

M&S is one of the leading retailers in the UK. It currently operates over six hundred stores in the UK and employees over seventy-five thousand people. (marksandspencer.com, 2010).  The table below shows the total revenue in millions that marks and Spencer’s has earned in the Uk over the past five years:

Total revenue (UK)


53 weeks



52 weeks



52 weeks



52 weeks



52 weeks


8,567.9 8,164.3 8,309.1 7,977.5 7,275.0

Source: (marksandspencer.com, 2010)

The business’s total revenue has increased by 17.8% between 2006 and 2010.

Marks and Spencer was originally a highly successful bricks and mortar business. In 1999 it set up an e-commerce website to compete with rivals and target the online shopping community.  M&S is now a multi-channel business. Customers are able to purchase products in a store, via the internet or over the phone (marksandspencer.com, 2010).




marksanspencer.com (2010): Company Overview. cited in http://corporate.marksandspencer.com/aboutus/company_overview, accessed on 1/10/2010

 marksanspencer.com (2010): Investors. cited in http://corporate.marksandspencer.com/investors/fin_highlights/five_year_record, accessed on 1/10/2010

marksanspencer.com (2010): How We Sell. cited in http://annualreport.marksandspencer.com/operating-and-financial-review/how-we-sell.aspx, accessed on 1/10/2010


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Week 1 – Internet Usage

The Internet can be used for accessing information, communicating, shopping as well as entertainment. Internet access has rapidly grown over the past decade, it is estimated that 73% of households in the United Kingdom have access to the Internet (www.statistics.gov.uk, 2010). However, statistics also show that 60% of people aged over 65 have never used the internet (www.statistics.gov.uk, 2010). This is a result of the older generation being less computer literate. Only 1% of people aged 16 – 24 have never accessed the internet (www.statistics.gov.uk, 2010). The younger generation are more familiar with digital technologies such as computers and the Internet having grown up in the digital age.

Research carried out by the UK Online Measurement Company (UKOM) found that internet users spend an average of twenty-two hours online monthly (BBC, 2010). The following  statistics show how the average internet user spends their time online:

Social networks/blogs – 22.7%
E-mail – 7.2%
Games – 6.9%
Instant Messaging – 4.9%
Classified/Auctions – 4.7%
Portals – 4%
Search – 4%
Software info/products – 3.4%
News – 2.8%
Adult – 2.7%
Source: (BBC, 2010)

The statistics above shows that the internet users spend a large proportion of their time networking and communicating through the use of email, instant messaging, blogs and social networks e.g. Facebook. The Internet can be used as a great source of entertainment e.g. video on demand. Gaming has also become a popular online activity. Many online gaming companies charge a fee to their members. The average internet user spends 2.8% of their time browsing news websites (BBC, 2010). Newspaper companies have begun to sell newspapers online helping to reduce the costs of distribution (Tanenbaum, 2003). Online shopping has become more popular over the past ten years. Improvements made in website security have made shoppers feel safer purchasing goods online. E-commerce businesses can trade products twenty-four hours a day seven days a week. This gives them a competitive edge over traditional businesses. It is becoming a trend for students and workers to access work files from outside university and work via the Internet.


statistics.gov.uk (2010): Internet Access. cited in http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=8, accessed on 22/09/2010

BBC (2010): Britons spend nearly ‘one day a month online’. cited in http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10122834, accessed on 22/09/2010

Tanenbaum, A. (2003): Computer Networks. Pearson Education, Inc. New Jersey 07458. 4th Edition. Pg. 6, 7, 8, 9
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